The client whose cat died (discussed in the previous post) requested a necropsy (called an autopsy in human medicine) a day after the cat passed, which I performed.
Dr. Vassey, who left a comment below, most likely got it right: the cat likely died from an infarct (thrombus/clot) that acutely became lodged in a blood vessel supplying the intestine. Without normal blood flow, and therefore oxygen, the intestine literally "died."
The cat's entire intestine was grossly hemorrhagic and necrotic, while other abdominal organs were spared this pathology. I found a massive clot in a blood vessel feeding a portion of the intestine, which I submitted for histopathology, along with the cat's heart, portions of liver, lung, and intestine.
Unfortunately, it was grave news for this kitty from the get-go.
While not the cat in question, this is exactly what I found.